OSLIS APA Citation Home
The American renaissance. (2004). Philadelphia, PA: Chelsea House.
Lee, H. (1982). To kill a mockingbird. New York, NY: Warner Books.
Reilly, M. J., & Jermyn, L. (2004). Mexico (2nd ed.).
New York, NY: Marshall.
Author1, A. A., Author2, B. B., Author3, C. C., Author4, D. D.,
Author5, E. E., Author6, F. F., ... FinalAuthor, G. G. (2010).
This is a made-up book title: No joke. Portland, OR:
Bevington, D. (Ed.). (2008). The complete works of Shakespeare
(6th ed.). New York, NY: Longman.
Schlager, N. & Weisblatt, J. (Eds.). (2006). Alternative energy
(Vols 1-3). Detroit, MI: Gale.
Editor1, A. A., Editor2, B. B., Editor3, C. C., Editor4, D. D.,
Editor5, E. E., Editor6, F. F., ... FinalEditor, G. G. (2010).
This is a made-up book title: No joke. Portland,
OR: Multnomah Press.
Gibbs, J. T. (2001). Books for children of all ages
(F. W. Hudson, Ed.). New York, NY: Dover.
Medina, P. (1994). The secret. In L. M. Carlson (Ed.), Cool salsa:
Bilingual poems on growing up Latino in the United States
(p. 48). New York, NY: Holt.
APA instructs you to use secondary sources "sparingly," like when the original
source is out of print or you cannot easily access the original source.
According to APA, you should include the secondary source, with no reference
to the original one, in your reference list. Then, in your paper, identify
the original work and give an in-text citation for the secondary source.
Ask your teacher
if you should use that approach or the one used on this
template, which is to include the information about both the original and
secondary sources for the citation in the reference list.
Flowers, B. S. (1997). Wrestling with the mother and father: 'His' and 'her'
in Adrienne Rich. In D. Smith (Ed.), Contemporary literary
criticism (Vol. 104, pp. 430-444). Detroit, MI: Gale.
(Reprinted from Private voices, public lives: Women speak
on the literary life, pp. 54-63, by N. O. Nelson, Ed., 1995,
Denton: University of North Texas Press)
APA instructs you to use secondary sources "sparingly," like when the original source is out of print or you cannot easily access the original source.
According to APA, you should include the secondary source, with no reference to the original one, in your reference list. Then, in your paper, identify the original work and give an in-text citation for the secondary source.
Ask your teacher if you should use that approach or the one used on this template, which is to include the information about both the original and secondary sources for the citation in the reference list.
Spilka, M. (1982). Of George and Lennie and Curley’s wife: Sweet violence
in Steinbeck’s Eden. In D. Smith (Ed.), Contemporary literary
criticism (Vol. 104, pp. 430-444). Detroit, MI: Gale. (Reprinted
from Modern Fiction Studies, 1974, 20, 169-180)
Gillingham, J. (2008). Norman conquest. In The world book
encyclopedia (Vol. 14, pp. 455-456). Chicago, IL: World Book.
Pharaoh. (2003). In Merriam-Webster's collegiate dictionary
(11th ed., p. 928). Springfield, MA: Merriam-Webster.
Noland, H., Price, J. H., Dake, J., & Telljohann, S. K. (2009).
Adolescents' sleep behaviors and perceptions of sleep.
Journal of School Health, 79(5), 224-230.
Fitzpatrick, L. (2010, July 12). How we fail our female vets.
Time, 176(2), 42-45.
Fuller, T. (2010, July 13). Old bones yield a new age of dinosaurs.
The New York Times, pp. A10, A12.
Mattick, M. (2010, July 4). Defending the all-American tart
[Letter to the editor]. The Register-Guard, p. G2.
Rogers, F. (2005). Southern flying squirrel. In Encyclopedia of animals.
Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com
Eating disorders. (2008). In K. L. Lerner & B. W. Lerner (Eds.), Gale
encyclopedia of science (4th ed.). Retrieved from
Hosenball, M. (2010, July 19). Spying a real payday. Newsweek,
156(3), 12. Retrieved from http://www.newsweek.com/
Rowena, J. & Collins, C. (2010). Can we treat our way out of HIV?
AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses, 26, 1-4.
Schwartz, J. (2010, July 20). Liability at issue in oil flow rate in Gulf.
The New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com
Verley, B. (2010, July 16). Cutting all the trees [Letter to the editor].
The Daily Astorian. Retrieved from http://www.dailyastorian.com/
APA instructs you not to include a general website in your reference list but to include the URL and website name in the text of your paper.
Ask your teacher whether or not to include a general website in your reference list. If you do, use the following examples as guidelines.
Crater Lake National Park. (n.d.). Retrieved from National Park Service
Donohue, J. (n.d.). John Donohue's national park photos: Crater
Lake National Park. Retrieved July 27, 2010, from
Schloss, J. P. (2003). Symbiosis. In Encyclopedia of science
and religion. Retrieved from
Symbiosis. (n.d.). In Merriam-Webster's online dictionary. Retrieved from
O'Malley, C. (2000, March). It's an Internet world. Popular Science, 256(3),
47-51. Retrieved from http://www.popsci.com/archives
Hubbard, R. E., Andrew, M. K., & Rockwood, K. (2009). Effect of parental
age at birth on accumulation of deficits, frailty and survival
in older adults. Age and Ageing, 38, 380-385.
Prior, A. (2010, August 8). How to tame college costs: It's not just
tuition. The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved from
Donofrio, J. (2010, August 16). Get a transportation plan, Oregon
[Letter to the editor]. The Oregonian. Retrieved from
Skloot, R. (2010). The immortal life of Henrietta Lacks
[Kindle iPad version]. doi:10.1036/007142363X
Ngaruko, F., & Nkurunziza, J. D. (2005). Civil war and its duration in
Burundi. In P. Collier & N. Sambanis (Eds.), Understanding
civil war (Africa): Evidence and understanding [Adobe Digital
Editions version] (Vol. 1, pp. 35 - 62). Retrieved from
TenDam, H. (n.d.). Politics, civilization, & humanity. Retrieved
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health,
National Eye Institute. (2003). Diabetic retinopathy: What
you should know (NIH Publication No. 06-2171). Retrieved from
Learning About Diabetes. (2008). Charlie the Carb: A story about simple
carb counting [Booklet]. Retrieved from
This is my made-up report title (Research Report No. 321-4). (2010).
Retrieved from Official Reports website: http://www.reportsurl.com
Goldman, J. G. (2010, August 23). To hear a mockingbird: The plight of
the iguana [Web log post]. Retrieved from http://scienceblogs.com
Sylvia. (2010, August 24). Re: To hear a mockingbird: The plight of the
iguana [Web log comment]. Retrieved from http://scienceblogs.com
Pelletier, M. (Producer & Host). (2010, July 31). Futures in biotech
[Audio podcast]. Retrieved from http://twit.tv/fib
Wall Street Journal Radio Network (Producer), & Deal, G. (Host).
(2010, September 1). Wall Street Journal this morning
[Audio podcast]. Retrieved from http://online.wsj.com/public
Benjamin, S., & Bowlin, B. (Hosts). (2010, September 7). Car stuff
[Audio podcast]. Retrieved from http://auto.howstuffworks.com
APA instructs users who conducted personal interviews not to include those
in the reference list. Instead, use an in-text citation in your paper and
refer to the interview as personal communication.
Sparkman, C. F. (1973). An oral history with Dr. Colley F.
Sparkman/Interviewer: O. B. Caudill. Mississippi Oral
History Program (Vol. 289). University of Southern
Smith, M. B. (1989, August 12). Interview by C. A. Kiesler [Tape
recording]. President's Oral History Project, American
Psychological Association. APA Archives, Washington, D.C.
Dowdy, W. (2001). Walter Dowdy collection [Video recording]. Veterans
History Project (AFC/2001/001/20008). American Folklife Center,
Library of Congress. Retrieved from http://www.loc.gov/vets/
Beatles. (1969). On Yellow submarine [Record]. Los Angeles, CA:
Taupin, B. (1973). Candle in the wind [Recorded by E. John]. On Goodbye
Yellow Brick Road [CD]. Universal City, CA: Polygram Records.
Jackson, M. (1982). Wanna be startin' somethin'. On Thriller
[MP3 file]. Retrieved from http://www.last.fm/music
Thomas, J., & McLaren, M. (Producers), & Linklater, R. (Director). (2006).
Fast food nation [DVD]. USA: Recorded Picture Company.
Engle, M. (Creator), & olinlibrary (Poster). (2008). Research minutes: How
to identify scholarly journal articles [Video file]. Retrieved
Check this box
if you watched a self-produced video clip like those found on YouTube.
To help fight SPAM, please prove that you are a human being. Enter a number between zero and nine and then click on a source in the column on the right.
Click on the resource (source type) you want to cite from the yellow box on the right. If you need directions, see below.
* Note: Not all source types are included in Citation Maker. If necessary, adapt an existing one and always check the Publication Manual of the APA for specific examples.
To create a citation, follow these steps:
OSLIS MLA Elementary Citation Home | OSLIS MLA Secondary Citation Home
Before you exit Citation Maker, be sure to save your work by using "Copy All" or
"Save in Word" or "Save to Google Docs."
Citation Maker Instructions