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Common Knowledge

When Citing is Not Necessary

  • If the information is well known or widely known and indisputable, including mathematical and scientific facts.

Abraham Lincoln authored the Gettysburg Address.

Hawaii was the 50th state added to the union.

Water freezes at 32 degrees Fahrenheit.

The state bird of Oregon is the western meadowlark.

  • Collectively, these examples are known as common knowledge. You might not have known the fact until you read it during your research, but it could still be considered known and reliable information by the average, educated person. If you are unsure if your information is common knowledge, cite your source